Bangkok and Thailand are one of the largest cities in South East Asia. The term Bangkok metropolitan area refers to a politically defined region or government classified urban region around Bangkok Metropolis. The urban sector or the built-up region of Bangkok and Thailand that vary in both size and shape is commendable in development. The governmental definition was known as metropolis and all the five neighbouring provinces of Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Sakhon, Nakhon Pathom, and Samut Prakan. The Bangkok Metropolitan area covers an area of about 7,761 km2 (Wikipedia).
Due to grave concerns of effects brought about by population growth to climatic change and the natural environment, engineers and construction planners are beginning to put in considerations the urban climate procedures in their work plan. The urban environment that represents urban morphologies all over BMR, were used to collect data on the impacts of configuration and the composition of indicators of variables of urban morphology during the summer diurnal range, using multiple linear regressions and correlation analyses.
Global warming has been on an extreme rise all over the world. Bangkok and Thailand are one of the largest cities in Southeast Asia, with land surface temperature (LST) increasing every day at a surprising rate. This is due to constructions and buildings within the towns, heavy materials and covering materials within the same. Limited space that exists between buildings and industrial productions also plays a role in causing this. Other factors include massive human migration due to the high rates of unemployment, climatologically notable changes, air pollutions, rapid increase in constructions and traffic congestion. In October 2012, about 7,384,934 vehicles were registered in the metro area, roughly one car for every two people, (wiki).
Landsat Thematic Mapper data that is obtained during the summer was used to approximate land surface temperature. Results were that about 81% of the variations of the average daytime, near surface air temperature, were explained by the surface temperature on the summer diurnal range. The features of the canopy urban cover that affect the larger percentage of the temperature of the surface is the portion covered by constructions and buildings. Research has it that the form factor of the urban morphology indicators was reliable and relevant in estimating the air temperature than the urban canopy features composition.
The results indicated that around 92.6% of the variation in air temperature was illustrated by the two variables of urban morphology indicators; floor area ratio and open space ratio. The Influence of Urban Morphology Indicators on Summer Diurnal Range of Urban Climate in Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering; Oct2011, Vol. 11 Issue 5, p34.By Srivanit, Manat; Kazunori, Hokao. In my research, I used Landsat 5TM data to map areas of the urban lands and the changes that took place within a duration of six years. Establishment of land classes of was done by Landsat 5TM scenes made in the same season in 1988 and 1994.
The land class changes were obtained by using two approaches; modelling and mapping in my case study of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region in Thailand. I used quantitative research methods. Obtained quantitative results of the changes, which were computed from a post classification formula, were used to scrutinize the pattern of changes in the classes of the urban land. The analysis of the detection change showed that 2% of land set aside for agriculture was not available, but there was an increase of about 14% in the urban areas. These results obtained proved that the sequence of change in the urban land classes in Bangkok region was that of agricultural lands to open lands; public lands to residential vicinities, and residential areas to commercial lands.
Previously, the region had experienced the lowest urbanization level. Between 1990 and 2010 the increase in rural population was about 0.3 million, whereas urban population increased by 15 million. This fact makes it possible for the Area to reach urbanization levels of 60% to 70% by 2025. (TDRI 1990, Awang et al.1994, Pernia and Alabastro 1997).
Uncontrolled human migration from rural areas was the major cause ofOver-population within Bangkok. High rural push and urban pull influence people continue to move to Bangkok. This is so since such migrants have better facilities and employment opportunities than their previous in rural home. Migration is typically concentrated amongst young adults and educated individuals (Thailand in a Nutshell 2001, Bilsborrow 1998c).
Push and pull factors
Push factors influencing migration to Bangkok are constructions, loss of biological diversity, deforestation, flooding, soil erosion and water shortages. These reasons are related to the economy and the environment. The north-eastern region loses its population due to poverty, declining in potential earning from agriculture and existence of few economic opportunities. Suphapodok and Chueyprasit 1994, Awang et al.1994.
Development of inadequate road network and provision of mass transit has led to massive traffic congestion and environmental deterioration in BMR. High demands of water without adequate governmental water supply and extreme pricing methods have led to excessive groundwater pumping and therefore land subsidence. High population growth without appropriate sewerage and drainage has also resulted in water pollution. Development of industries without investment and enforcement and inadequate pollution control systems has resulted in increased water, solid waste and air pollution (TDRI 1990).
During peak hours, Bangkok experiences a massive rise in traffic congestion in the city. This is due to uncontrolled vehicle growth, ineffective mass transit systems and low cost of fuel. Data has it that vehicle numbers is over 2 million and 890,000 motorcycles. The economic losses in BMR caused by traffic are on the rise, about 275 million $ (Suphapodok and Chueyprasit 1994, Awang et al.1994)
The highest commercial growth of land noted in high-density residential areas along the main roads and railway line. Data was generated from the two dates of TM images for vegetation impervious soil composition model. Changes in trends of the urban land classes and the study area anatomy were presented quantitatively via the vegetation impervious soil model (V-I-S). An agreement was derived from the values of changes computed from the (V-I-S) model that reflected 6% changes as the change-detection map reflected 5.6% changes.
Results of changes in the sequence of residential and commercial areas have it that remote sensing data can be utilized for vegetation impervious soil model mapping and modelling of surface urban features. "techniques for retrieving ISA using remote sensing methods are categorised into these groups: by a semi-automatic or manual method through multispectral classification or visual interpretation. Madhavan et al, 2001; Jennings et al, 2004; Gulch et al. 2006; Couturier et al. 2011), by integration of classified imperviousness results with data obtained from other sources (Plunk et al., 1990; Sleavin et al., 2000; Phinn et al., 2002), by vegetation-related/imperviousness spectral indices (Carlson and Arthur, 2000; Bauer et al., 2004; Braun and Herold, 2004; Yang and Liu, 2005; Xu, 2010), by the SMA Phinn et al., 2002; Wu and Murray, 2003; Xian and Crane, 2005; Yuan and Bauer, 2007), and by decision tree algorithms (Yang et al., 2003; Xian et al., 2008; Couturier et al., 2011.
I constructed my research based on based field studies and interviews. I was able to ask a couple of questions to a few individuals within the Bangkok region. These included pedestrians, college students, businessmen and women. I also conducted a test area on a section of central Bangkok (Pathum Thani). This test was able to help in finding solutions and measures to take to reduce land surface temperature and Heat Island effect.
As the urban metropolitan areas of Bangkok developed, changes occurred in its landscape too. Roads, buildings, and infrastructures replaced open unused land and vegetation cover. Previously permeable and moist surfaces become parched and impermeable. Such drastic changes forced urban Bangkok Metropolitan regions to adjust progressively and become warmer than their rural surroundings. This later led to the formation of an island of higher temperatures in the landscape.
Samakee Phattana Community, Rom Klan, Bangkok
Residents of Rom Klan are migrants from the poorest region of Thailand, the North Eastern Region with non-permanent housings since this land is owned by the government. For the past 9 to 10 years, there has been a total of 498 homes in Rom Klan for its approximately 1,500 residents. Electricity and power to this area are bought from a neighbouring village, which purchases it from the government and sells it at a higher cost. Gas is used for cooking. The Collection of Solid Waste is planned and executed. It costs about 0.5US$ a month. Hired workers collect such solid wastes and dispose them, where the municipality workers in charge will collect and further dispose them.
Residents of this area have temporary jobs and experience high unemployment rate. Here, water is either got from the ground, pumped from the communitys or bought from vendors. The area experiences flooding due to the swampy ground and pond to where its wastewater is discharged. People use the water from the pond for various uses purposes like irrigation, playing and fishing, which poses a risk to child health. This community is extremely organized since its habitats are from the same origin.
Adverse impacts of the high heat level would include; compromised human health and comfort and poor water quality, increase in energy consumption, and elevated emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. However, greater attention to the heat-related environment within the BMA region helped to advance the development of heat island reduction strategies, majorly vegetation and trees, cool roofs, and green roofs.
Most significant strategies reducing the heat island effect is by increasing tree and vegetation cover. This can only be achieved by planting and conserving vegetation. Communities can also invest in creating rooftop gardens or eco-roofs, installing of cool or rather, reflective roofs and also using of cool pavements. Treatment of waste water should be prioritized too.
Akbari, H. 2005. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation (19 pp, 251K) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Aniello, C., K. Morgan, A. Busbey, and L. Newland 1995 Mapping Micro-Urban Heat Islands Using Landsat TM and a GIS.
Berdahl P. and S. Bretz 1997 Preliminary Survey of the Solar Reflectance of Cool Roofing Ma- terials. Energy and Buildings 25:149-158. 6 Numbers from Voogt, J.A. and T.R
Computers and Geosciences 21(8):965-69.
Energy and Buildings 25:149-158.
Jariya boonjawat Berdahl P. and S. Bretz. 1997. Preliminary survey of the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials.
Manat Srivanit, Wanarat Konisranukul (UCL dissertation), Yang Shao
Oke, T.R. 1982. The Energetic Basis of the Urban Heat Island. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Oke, T.R. 1997. Urban Climates and Global Environmental Change In: Thompson, R.D. and A. Perry (eds.) Ap...
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